One black chain and two white chains, with their liberties marked with dots. Liberties are shared amongst all stones of a series and may be counted. Here the black group has 5 liberties, whereas the two white chains have four liberties every. Although there are some minor variations between rule-units used in completely different international locations, most notably in Chinese and Japanese scoring rules, these variations do not greatly have an effect on the ways and technique of the game.
The general technique is to expand one’s territory, attack the opponent’s weak groups (teams that can be killed), and at all times stay aware of the “life standing” of 1’s own groups. Situations where mutually opposing groups should capture each other or die are referred to as capturing races, or semeai. In a capturing race, the group with extra liberties (and/or better “shape”) will in the end be capable of capture the opponent’s stones.
A vacant point adjoining to a stone, along one of many grid traces of the board, is called a liberty for that stone. A chain of stones must have no less than one liberty to stay on the board. When a chain is surrounded by opposing stones so that it has no liberties, it’s captured and removed from the board.
Some “ko fights” may be necessary and resolve the life of a giant group, while others could also be worth just one or two points. Some ko fights are known as “picnic kos” when only one facet has lots to lose.
Rule 2 (the “ko rule”) states that the stones on the board mustn’t ever repeat a previous place of stones. Moves which might do so are forbidden, and thus solely strikes elsewhere on the board are permitted that turn. Stones or teams of stones which lose their final liberty are removed from the board. ) is a repeated-place shape which may be contested by making forcing moves elsewhere. After the forcing move is performed, the ko may be “taken again” and returned to its original place.
Neither Black nor White can play on the marked factors with out reducing their very own liberties for these teams to one (self-atari). The Ing and New Zealand rules do not have this rule, and there a player may destroy considered one of its own teams—”commit suicide”. This play would solely be useful in a limited set of conditions involving a small interior area.
Vertically and horizontally adjacent stones of the identical shade kind a chain (also referred to as a string or group), forming a discrete unit that can’t then be divided. Only stones linked to 1 another by the strains on the board create a series; stones which might be diagonally adjacent are not connected. Chains could also be expanded by placing further stones on adjacent intersections, and can be linked collectively by inserting a stone on an intersection that’s adjacent to two or more chains of the same shade.
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